Geospatial warning systems
|Project | GEOWARN Design | Transferability | Final Product | Innovation/Outlook|
Transferability of GEOWARN systems to other European volcanoes > The second test site Campi Flegrei (Italy) - a transferability test > The Solfatara Volcano
The Solfatara Volcano
The Solfatara volcano is a hydrothermally altered tuff-cone built between 4.6
and 3.7 ka BP. It represents the most active zone of the Campi Flegrei, a caldera
related to the Campanian Ignimbrite (35 ka BP) and Neapolitan Yellow Tuff (12
ka BP) eruptions.
Fumarolic activity occurs in different sectors of Campi Flegrei but concentrates
at Solfatara. Two fumaroles called Bocca Grande (BG) and Bocca Nuova (BN) have
the highest temperatures (145 to 165°C), while temperatures of other fumarolic
vents are close to 100°C.
Solfatara, the most active volcanic area of Campi Flegrei, is one of the most famous tourist sites of Italy which and is also intensely urbanized. Four different kinds of natural hazards can be distinguished:
At present, the Osservatorio Vesuviano performs the volcanic surveillance of the area. Their activity includes periodic sampling of fumarolic gases, periodic soil CO2 flux measurements, continuous monitoring of soil CO2 fluxes, and geophysical monitoring (seismicity, gravity and deformation).
Fig. 44 Observed variations of H2O/CO2
and S/C ratios of the Solfatara di Pozzuoli fumarolic gases since 1980; ground
deformation and seismic activity are shown. Osservatorio Vesuviano Napoli (OVNI)
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